The decolonisation of Africa effectively modernized colonialism rather than granting true independence to African states. This process, often regarded as neo-colonialism, allowed former colonial powers to maintain control over African nations through political, economic, and military means. Institutions such as the United Nations, IMF, World Bank, and NATO, established during colonial times, continue to exert influence. The book argues that true independence and sovereignty for African states will remain elusive until these nations detach from colonial-era institutions and develop their own knowledge systems, beneficial to their indigenous populations. This ongoing direct and indirect interference by former colonialists in African affairs is a hallmark of modernised colonialism.